Session 13

Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix ferro refers to iron, because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism.

Session 12

Superconductivity

Superconductivity was discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8, 1911, in Leiden. Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials called superconductors when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines, superconductivity is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. It is characterized by the Meissner effect, the complete ejection of magnetic field lines from the interior of the superconductor during its transitions into the superconducting state. The occurrence of the Meissner effect indicates that superconductivity cannot be understood simply as the idealization of perfect conductivity in classical physics. In 1986, it was discovered that some cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials have a critical temperature above 90 K (−183 °C). Such a high transition temperature is theoretically impossible for a conventional superconductor, leading the materials to be termed high-temperature superconductors.

Session 11

Medical Physics and Biophysics

Biophysics and Medical Physics is concerned with the studies where basic physics is employed to understand the nature of biological systems, in particular those issues involving ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance, medical therapy and medical diagnostics. The research activity of medical physics and biophysics intersects between physics, medicine, chemistry, and biology. It includes fundamental research as well as applied research; theoretically and experimentally challenging; centered on the activity at the EPR-laboratory and the Cell-laboratory; collaborates with research and medical institutions. The research involves from applied experimental research to theoretical and experimental fundamental research with strong connections to medical challenges, in particular challenges involving ionizing radiation such as radioactivity and X-rays, and also magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Session 10

Nanomaterials and Nanophysics

Nanomaterials and Nanophysics can be used in numerous different contexts such as development of new materials and new technologies. Nanomaterials and Nanophysics focuses on designing, fabricating and controlling materials and components with dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e. from 1 to 100 nm. Nanotechnology can be used to develop new optic and electronic components and new materials for use in communications technology, sensor technology or catalysis. Nanomaterials and Nanophysics investigate the contemporary research that make up the field of nanotechnology. The study gains insight into the nanotools and nanodevices, possibilities, issues and challenges that engineers within nanotechnology are faced with on a day-to-day basis. Applying the most advanced nanofabrication technology to materials makes it possible to gain control over their properties, and thereby construct unique materials and components with new and unexpected properties for applications within for example energy technology, communication, catalysis and data storage and processing. Nanomaterials and Nanophysics work with the special electronic and optical characteristics of nanomaterials. The subfields include semiconductor physics, nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nano optics, and surface physics.

Session 9

Condensed Matter Physics

Condensed Matter Physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter. The study of condensed matter physics involves measuring various material properties via experimental probes along with using methods of theoretical physics to develop mathematical models that help in understanding physical behavior. In particular it is concerned with the condensed phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a system is extremely large and the interaction between the constituent are strong. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electromagnetic forces between atoms. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by using physical laws. In particular, they include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate found in ultracold atomic systems.

Session 8

Particle Physics

Particle physics also high energy physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects such as protons, gas particles, or even household dust, particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. These elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics is known as Standard Model. Thus modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions such as the newest known particle, the Higgs boson, or even to the oldest known force field gravity.

Session 7

Quantum Science & Technology

Quantum Science and Technologies now involve thousands of researchers worldwide, cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering, bioscience, applied mathematics and computer science, extending from fundamental science to novel applications and industry. This situation defines the scope and mission of Quantum Science and Technology. It has been designed in close collaboration with the community to ensure that it serves the thousands of researchers across academia and industry now working at the cutting edge of what is being referred to as quantum science 2.0. Recent developments reflect the increasing potential for converting quantum physics research into commercial products. QST is being positioned as a top-tier, devoted to a rapidly expanding research area that now has a unique multidisciplinary character. Quantum Science and Technologies will bridge theory and experiment as well as aspects of both fundamental and applied solid state, condensed matter, quantum optics, atomic physics and materials science, extending to chemistry, biology, and engineering and computer science. Guided by leading experts across the field, Quantum Science and Technology becomes the key choice for researchers and innovators based in both academia and industry who are working in all of these areas.

Session 6

Material Physics

Material physics is the use of physics to describe the physical properties of materials. It is a synthesis of physical sciences such as chemistry, solid mechanics, solid state physics, and materials science. Materials physics is considered a subset of condensed matter physics and applies fundamental condensed matter concepts to complex multiphase media, including materials of technological interest. Current fields that materials physicists work in include electronic, optical, and magnetic materials, novel materials and structures, quantum phenomena in materials, nonequilibrium physics, and soft condensed matter physics. New experimental and computational tools are constantly improving how materials systems are modeled and studied and are also fields when materials physicists work in. Material Physics include advanced solid state physics, lab courses on experimental methods in solid state physics, and specialization in research Material Physics is concerned with mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of selected materials, soft matter physics, biophysics, theoretical and computer physics, or special aspects of materials engineering and chemistry.

Session 5

Experimental Physics

Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments. Methods vary from discipline to discipline from simple experiments and observations, such as the Cavendish experiment to more complicated ones, such as the Large Hadron Collider. Experimental physics regroups all the disciplines of physics that are concerned with data acquisition, data–acquisition methods, and the detailed conceptualization beyond simple thought experiments and realization of laboratory experiments. It is often put in contrast with theoretical physics which is more concerned with predicting and explaining the physical behavior of nature than the acquisition of knowledge about it.

Session 4

Theoretical Physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. The advancement of science generally depends on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. Theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations. While developing special relativity, Albert Einstein was concerned with the Lorentz transformation which left Maxwell’s equations invariant, but was apparently uninterested in the Michelson–Morley experiment on Earth’s drift through luminiferous ether. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect, previously an experimental result lacking a theoretical formulation.

Session 3

High Energy Nuclear Physics

High-energy nuclear physics studies the behavior of nuclear matter in energy regimes typical of high energy physics. The primary focus of this field is the study of heavy-ion collisions as compared to lower atomic mass atoms in other particle accelerators. At sufficient collision energies, these types of collisions are theorized to produce the quark–gluon plasma. Previous high-energy nuclear physics accelerator experiments have studied heavy-ion collisions using projectile energies of 1 GeV/nucleon up to 158 GeV/nucleon. Experiments of this type, called “fixed target” experiments, primarily accelerate a “bunch” of ions (typically around 10 6 {\displaystyle 10^{6}} 10^{6} to 10 8 {\displaystyle 10^{8}} 10^{8} ions per bunch) to speeds approaching the speed of light (0.999c) and smash them into a target of similar heavy ions. In peripheral nuclear collisions at high energies one expects to obtain information on the electromagnetic production of leptons and mesons which are not accessible in electron-positron colliders due to their much smaller luminosities.

Session 2

Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics

Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics are primarily concerned with electronic structure and the dynamical processes by which these arrangements change. Generally this work involves using quantum mechanics. For molecular physics this approach is known as quantum chemistry. One important aspect of molecular physics is that the essential atomic orbital theory in the field of atomic physics expands to the molecular orbital theory. Molecular physics is concerned with atomic processes in molecules and also concerned with effects due to the molecular structure. Additionally to the electronic excitation states which are known from atoms, molecules are able to rotate and to vibrate. These rotations and vibrations are quantized. And there are discrete energy levels. Vibrational spectra are in the near infrared (about 1 – 5 µm) and spectra resulting from electronic transitions are mostly in the visible and ultraviolet regions.

Session 1

Classical & Modern Physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be Modern, and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift then the previous theories or new theories based on the older paradigm, will often be referred to as belonging to the realm of Classical physics. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory and Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Classical mechanics predicted a varying speed of light, which could not be resolved with the constant speed predicted by Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism; this discrepancy was corrected by Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which replaced classical mechanics for fast-moving bodies and allowed for a constant speed of light.

Session 25

Plasma Science & Plasma Physics

Plasma which means moldable substance is one of the four fundamental states of matter. Unlike the other three states, solid, liquid, and gas, plasma does not exist freely on the Earth’s surface under normal conditions. Plasma can be artificially generated by heating or subjecting a neutral gas to a strong electromagnetic field to the point an ionized gaseous substance becomes increasingly electrically conductive, and long-range electromagnetic fields dominate the behavior of the matter. Plasma, the most common state of matter in the universe, exhibits complex and rich physics phenomena, including waves, turbulence, and interactions with materials. Studying plasmas is critical to advance technology development for practical purposes as developing functional fusion reactors and to understand the processes in stars, planets, and inter-stellar space. Plasma physics uses cutting-edge facilities and large-scale computation with an aim of obtaining comprehensive predictive understanding of plasmas in a variety of situations. This session discusses more about plasma science.

Session 24

Nano-Technology

Nanotechnology operates on the interfaces of traditional scientific areas. It has already contributed substantially to the understanding of interdisciplinary phenomena within science and engineering. Therefore, it is rapidly gaining ground in the traditional engineering areas such as material science, electronics, energy, and technology in general. Nanomaterials and Nanophysics deals with the research, theory, methods and experiments in the fields such as solid state physics, optics, semiconductor physics, surfaces and interfaces, properties of materials and components on the nanoscale, polymer and composite materials, pharmaceuticals, bandages and prosthetic devices, optical and electronic communication and data storage devices, improving fuels, materials and systems such as energy storage or solar power cells, and their measuring equipment, and nanoelectronics such as laboratory equipment and televisions. This session discusses more about Nano-Technology: Nanomaterials and Nanophysics.

Session 23

Physics

Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies such as understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society such as television, computers, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus. This session discusses more about physics.

Session 22

Laser Optics and Photonics

Laser Optics are optical components designed for use with lasers or within laser systems. Photonics is the science of light. It is a technology that generates, controls, and detects light waves and photons, which are known as particles of light. Photonics help explore the universe, cure diseases, solves criminal cases. Photonics explores a wider variety of wavelengths, from gamma rays to radio, including X-rays, UV and infrared light. Photonics is everywhere; in consumer electronics in the form of barcode scanners, DVD players, remote TV control; telecommunications such as internet; health such as eye surgery, medical instruments; manufacturing industry such as laser cutting and machining; defense and security such as infrared camera, remote sensing; entertainment such as holography, laser shows etc. Photonics and laser optics opens a world of unknown and far-reaching possibilities limited only by lack of imagination.

Session 21

Mathematical & Computational Physics

Mathematical physics deals with the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. Mathematical Physics defines the field as the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. It is a branch of applied mathematics but deals with physical problems. Computational physics deals with the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. Historically speaking computational physics was the first application of modern computers in science, and is now a subset of computational science. It is sometimes regarded as a sub-discipline of theoretical physics, but others consider it an intermediate branch between theoretical and experimental physics, a third way that supplements theory and experiment.

Session 20

Astrophysics and Cosmology

Astrophysics and Cosmology are two familial sciences which are of same genre. They also examine properties which include luminosity, density, temperature & chemical composition. In order to understand the broad concept of astrophysics one needs to be thorough with other disciplines of physics such as Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Statistical mechanics, Thermodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Relativity, Nuclear and particle physics and Atomic and Molecular physics. Some of their study areas are determining the properties of dark matter, dark energy and black holes, Whether or not time travel is possible or if the multiverse exists and the origin and ultimate fate of the Universe. Astrophysics is a science that demonstrates the birth, life and death of stars, planets, galaxies, extra solar planets and the cosmic microwave background of universe rather than their positions or motions in space. Cosmology is a field of study that brings together the natural sciences, particularly astronomy and physics, in a joint effort to understand the physical universe as a unified whole. It is the investigation of the inception, advancement, and possible destiny of the universe. In other words cosmology means deeper investigation of the origin of largest-scale structures.

Session 19

Applied Physics

Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge between physics and engineering. Applied Physics is rooted in the fundamental truths and basic concepts of the physical sciences but is concerned with the utilization of scientific principles in practical devices and systems, and in the application of physics in other areas of science. It usually differs from engineering in that an applied physicist may not be designing something in particular but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving an engineering problem.

Session 18

Relativistic Physics

Relativistic Physics deal with mechanics compatible with Special Relativity (SR) and General Relativity (GR). It provides a non-quantum mechanical description of a system of particles or of a fluid in cases where the velocities of moving objects are comparable to the speed of light c. As a result, classical mechanics is extended correctly to particles traveling at high velocities and energies providing a consistent inclusion of electromagnetism with the mechanics of particles. This was not possible in Galilean relativity, where it would be permitted for particles and light to travel at any speed including faster than light. The foundations of relativistic physics are the postulates of special relativity and general relativity. As with classical mechanics, the subject can be divided into Kinematics, the description of motion by specifying positions, velocities and accelerations, and dynamics; a full description by considering energies, momenta, and angular momenta and their conservation laws, and forces acting on particles or exerted by particles.

Session 17

Acoustics

Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. As such the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society which include music, medicine, architecture, industrial production, warfare and more. Likewise animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft, science and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole as in many other fields of knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay’s ‘Wheel of Acoustics’ is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.

Session 16

Solid State Physics

Solid-state physics deals with the study of rigid matter or solids through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy. Solid State Physics is the largest branch of condensed matter physics. It is concerned with the studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. Solid-state physics forms a theoretical basis of materials science. It also has direct applications for example in the technology of transistors and semiconductors. The bulk of solid-state physics as a general theory is focused on crystals. This is because the periodicity of atoms in a crystal its defining characteristic facilitates mathematical modeling. Likewise crystalline materials often have electrical, magnetic, optical, or mechanical properties that can be exploited for engineering purposes.

Session 15

Gravitational Physics

Gravitational Physics is concerned with the focus for research in all areas of its subspecialties. The gravitational physics focuses on quantum gravity and general relativity and in the related areas of geometry, mathematical physics, computational relativity, cosmology, and relativistic astrophysics. Its objective is to serve as a focus for research on gravitational physics including experiments and observations related to the detection and interpretation of gravitational waves, experimental tests of gravitational theories, computational general relativity, relativistic astrophysics, solutions to Einstein’s equations and their properties, alternative theories of gravity, classical and quantum cosmology, and quantum gravity. It also is concerned with the study of the development of an experimental program to conduct precision tests of gravity; and enable testing for deviations from Newtonian gravity as part of the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition to the experimental program, theoretical research includes the development of high-frequency gravity wave sensors, quantum gravity, black hole firewalls, and Planck-scale physics.

Session 14

Semiconductor Devices

Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices are manufactured both as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of a number from a few as low as two to billions of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate, or wafer. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices like vacuum tubes in most applications. They use electronic conduction in the solid state as opposed to the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a high vacuum. Semiconductor materials are useful because their behavior can be easily manipulated by the addition of impurities, known as doping. Semiconductor conductivity can be controlled by the introduction of an electric or magnetic field, by exposure to light or heat, or by the mechanical deformation of a doped monocrystalline grid; thus, semiconductors can make excellent sensors.

Session 30

Material Science And Engineering

Material Science and Engineering go hand in hand in dealing with the studies on research, design, and discovery of new materials such as solids. Materials Science evolved when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. Materials science and engineering has come a long way to be recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering. Materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, ceramics, solid-state physics, and chemistry. It is the first example of a new academic discipline emerging by fusion rather than fission. This session discusses more about material science and engineering.

Session 29

Nano-Technology: Nanomaterials And Nanophysics

Nanotechnology operates on the interfaces of traditional scientific areas. It has already contributed substantially to the understanding of interdisciplinary phenomena within science and engineering. Therefore, it is rapidly gaining ground in the traditional engineering areas such as material science, electronics, energy, and technology in general. Nanomaterials and Nanophysics deals with the research, theory, methods and experiments in the fields such as solid state physics, optics, semiconductor physics, surfaces and interfaces, properties of materials and components on the nanoscale, polymer and composite materials, pharmaceuticals, bandages and prosthetic devices, optical and electronic communication and data storage devices, improving fuels, materials and systems such as energy storage or solar power cells, and their measuring equipment, and nanoelectronics such as laboratory equipment and televisions. This session discusses more about Nano-Technology: Nanomaterials and Nanophysics.

Session 28

Atomic And Molecular Physics

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts. The three areas are closely interrelated. AMO theory includes classical, semi-classical and quantum treatments. Typically, the theory and applications of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from excited atoms and molecules, analysis of spectroscopy, generation of lasers and masers, and the optical properties of matter in general fall into these categories. Atomic physics is the subfield of atomic molecular & optical that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus, while molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules. The term atomic physics is often associated with nuclear power and nuclear bombs, due to the synonymous use of atomic and nuclear in Standard English. Molecular physics, while closely related to atomic physics also overlaps greatly with theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry and chemical physics. This session discusses more about atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO).

Session 27

Modern Astrophysics And Cosmology

Cosmology deals with the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scientific study of the universe’s origin, its large-scale structures and dynamics, and its ultimate fate, as well as the scientific laws that govern these areas. Astro-particle physics is a branch of particle physics that studies elementary particles of astronomical origin and their relation to astrophysics and cosmology. It is a relatively new field of research emerging at the intersection of particle physics, astronomy, astrophysics, detector physics, relativity, solid state physics, and cosmology. Modern astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects. Among the objects studied are the sun, other stars, galaxies, extra-solar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition. This session discusses more about cosmology, modern astrophysics, and astro-particle physics.

Session 26

Electromagnetism And Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors. It deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. While electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields and light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions commonly called forces in nature. Lightning is an electrostatic discharge that travels between two charged regions. Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. This session discusses more about electromagnetism and electronics.

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